Our Instant Tracking example should work on Android without any modifications. Do you have a specific issue when trying to run it or Android?
I'm not sure what you are referring to exactly with debugging. You can debug C# code when running in the editor, if you are using MonoDevelop or Visual Studio Code. Here is a tutorial on how to do that.
The reason why you cannot move the objects around in the editor is because the example code is using the Touch API from the Input class, which doesn't work in the editor. If you take a look at MoveController.cs, in the Update function, you will see at the start of the function the use of Input.touchCount and Input.GetTouch(0).
To get it to work in the Editor, you can either use Unity Remote, or change the Update function to use Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0) and Input.mousePosition instead.
The rotation gesture is not implemented in the sample provided, only translation and scale gestures. I would suggest looking around the Unity forums on how to do this. Maybe this can be a starting point.